California wine is unique. In most of the world’s major appellations, a region offers one, or even a few types or style of wine. Many areas allow only one, or perhaps a couple of different grape varietals. That is not the case with California wine. While many wine consumers and critics posit that the best wines produced in the Golden State are made today, wine making in California has a much longer history than most people are aware of.
Due to the divergent array of soils and climates, as well as choices made by wine makers, wine lovers have numerous choices in the style of wines they can drink as well. California, unlike Europe is more often than not, going to enjoy good weather conditions, with enough warmth, sunshine and rain to allow the grapes to ripen. Plus, when nature comes up short, it’s legal for growers to irrigate, when the water levels were too low.
That means that most of the time, growers are going to be able to make good wine. That is not the case with Europe. Back to wine styles for a moment, consumers can easily obtain wines in the ripe, rich, fruit forward, sweet style, if that’s what they seek. They also have the ability to purchase less ripe, dryer, more traditional styled wines, and some wineries are able to produce a wine that straddles the middle ground between ripe and traditional.
The first vines were planted in California as far back as the late 1700’s. But those were for religious purposes. The commercial birth of the wine industry took hold in the late 1800’s. Thanks to a small group of European emigrants, Napa and Sonoma got their start when Abraham Lincoln was President!
Credit for planting the first vines in Napa goes to George Calvert Yount, who began planting vineyards as far back as 1836. The famous town of Yountville carries his name. While Yount was the first person to plant vines, John Patchett gets credit for creating the first official vineyard and winery in Napa back in 1854. This was followed by in 1857 with Buena Vista, Gundlach Bundschu in 1858, Charles Krug in Napa 1861, Schramsberg in 1862, Hamilton Walker Crabb in 1868, Beringer in 1875, Inglenook in 1879, Montelena and Ridge date back to 1882. By this time, the news had spread about the perfect climate, great soil and cheap vineyard land. By 1889, almost 200 wineries were producing wine in California!
The first part of modern era for California wine began shorty after prohibition, following the conclusion of World War 2 when the Mondavi family bought the Charles Krug winery. The Mondavi family sought to make wine that equaled the best wine from Europe and began using some of the modern techniques that were in place in areas like Bordeaux. Previously, the first grapes planted were often of unknown origin. Many vineyards were field blends at the time, planted with a diverse array of grapes, some of which were known and others that were not know. The Mondavi’s began planting Bordeauxvarieties, like Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot with great success.
The next great event in the birth of the California wine region is the now famous, “Judgment of Paris,” when the best critics, writers and tasters assembled a blind tasting pitting California wines against their European counterparts. All the critics were surprised when they discovered more often than not, they preferred the wines of California. This was such a major story, reports of this were printed in every major newspaper, magazine and even newscasters discussed this with their viewers. California wine had arrived and they wanted everyone to know.
The second half of the modern era for California wine dates to the accession of the famous and powerful wine critic, Robert Parker. His enthusiastic praise of the wines caught peoples attention. Robert Parker championed the growth of single vineyard wines, picking fruit when it had achieved phenolic ripeness, low yields and the use of new oak. He recommended growers look at what they were planting and where. Prior to Parker, numerous vineyards were planted to varieties that were commercially viable, but due to the soil or weather conditions, they were not able to make the best wine possible. That is not the case today. Most vintners understand what grapes are best suited to their specific terroir.
Robert Parker excited people to buy and try the best California wine had to offer. Numerous small growers began making wine that was better than their better financed, and more famous neighbors. By 1994, the term Cult Wine took hold. A cult wine was defined as having a high Robert Parker rating, low production and most importantly, the wine sold on the after market for more money than the winery was charging. Soon, there might have been over 50 wines that were seen as part of the cult wine craze. By 1997, the cult wine phenomena began leveling off and less than a decade later, very few wines merit the cult wine title. Perhaps, Screaming Eagle, Harlan, Sine Qua Non and Marcassin are at the top of list today. As prices rose to meet demand, consumers were no longer able to profit from the sales of these very expensive wines selling for hundreds of dollars and the market began to decline.
While most California wine is sold in the United States of America, especially when it comes to the top producers of California wine, the world market continues to purchase more wine from the Golden State each year. 2017 marked the best year yet for California wine exports. Exports of all wine from America topped 50 million cases of wine worth more 1.62 Billion Dollars! Over 90% of those wines came from California. Demand is expected to continue, especially for the hard to get, premium wines from the Napa Valley.
(article sourced from www.thewinecellarinsider.com)